United Kingdom has never seen temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius, but that changed on July 19 with the country experiencing extreme heatwave with temperatures surpassing 40 degrees Celsius (about 104 degrees Fahrenheit).
Climate forecasters have been claiming that such temperatures will be a common occurrence in the UK by 2050 and that this was just an early preview of what is in store for the UK. The heat continues across Europe today, as well as in the United States, where more than a third of the country is under heat warnings. The temperatures harken back to just over a year ago when nearly 1,500 people died during a late June heatwave that more than doubled average temperatures in the United States and Canada.
Will temperatures continue to rise, leading to more frequent extreme heat events?
Yes, according to the latest analysis of the atmospheric circulation patterns and human-caused emissions that led to the 2021 heatwave in North America. The findings, published on July 22 in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, may also explain the U.K.’s current heatwave.
The research team found that greenhouse gases are the primary reason for increased temperatures in the past and will likely continue to be the main contributing factor, with simulations showing that extreme heatwave events will increase by more than 30% in the coming years. Almost two-thirds of that increased probability is the result of greenhouse gases, according to their results.
Atmospheric circulation patterns describe how air flows and influences surface air temperatures around the planet, both of which can change based on natural warming from the Sun and atmospheric internal variability, as well as Earth’s rotation. These configurations are responsible for daily weather, as well as the long-term patterns comprising climate. . Using observational data and climate models, the researchers identified that three atmospheric circulation patterns co-occurred during the 2021 heatwave: the North Pacific pattern, the Arctic-Pacific Canada pattern and the North America pattern.
But atmospheric circulation patterns can co-occur — and have before — without triggering an extreme heatwave, so how much was the 2021 event influenced by human activities? Researchers used the internationally curated, tested and assessed models from the World Climate Research Programme, specifically the Detection Attribution Model Comparison models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6).
They found that it is likely that global warming associated with greenhouse gases influences these three atmospheric circulation pattern variabilities, which, in turn, led to a more extreme heatwave event.
If appropriate measures are not taken, the occurrence probability of extreme heatwaves will increase and further impact the ecological balance, as well as sustainable social and economic development.